Microsoft’s operating system, Windows Server 2008, was released in 2008. It is the successor to Windows Server 2003, and it includes additional capabilities such as Server Core, an optional installation that offers comprehensive command-line control. Windows Server 2008 is the fourth version of Microsoft’s Windows Server operating system, which is part of the Windows NT operating system family. On February 4, 2008, it was released to manufacture, and on February 27, 2008, it was released to the general public. Microsoft Windows Server 2008, which is based on Windows Vista, is the successor of Windows Server 2003, which was introduced over five years ago and was based on the Windows XP codebase.
Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Microsoft combined the Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard from Windows Server 2003 into the Server Manager panel in Windows Server 2008, allowing administrators to perform a variety of server functions.
In Windows Server 2008, Active Directory received a big upgrade, with new Group Policy and identity management features. Active Directory Rights Management Services and Federation Services have also been updated.
Microsoft canceled support for all Internet Explorer versions older than the 2013 release of Internet Explorer 11 for Windows 7 on January 12, 2016. On January 14, 2020, extended support for Microsoft Windows Server 2008 came to an end, and supported Windows versions were distributed among unsupported Windows versions.
Editions of Microsoft Window server 2008 :
The majority of Windows Server 2008 editions are available in both x86-64 and IA-32 versions. These editions come with two DVDs: one for IA-32 and the other for x64 installation. IA-64 CPUs are supported by Microsoft Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems. The IA-64 model is designed for high-workload applications such as database servers and Line of Business (LOB) software. As a result, it is unsuitable for use as a file or media server. The last 32-bit Windows server operating system is Microsoft Windows Server 2008.
Following editions of Windows Server 2008 are available:
- Only OEMs will be able to use Windows Server 2008 Foundation (codenamed “Lima”; x86-64).
- Standard edition of Windows Server 2008 (IA-32 and x86-64)
- Windows Server 2008 Enterprise is a server operating system developed by Microsoft (IA-32 and x86-64)
- Datacenter edition of Windows Server 2008 (IA-32 and x86-64)
- Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems is a server operating system that runs on Itanium processors (IA-64)
- Windows Web Server 2008 is a web server that runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system (IA-32 and x86-64)
- Windows Storage Server 2008 (codenamed “Socrates”; replaces Windows Compute Cluster Server) (codenamed “Magni”; IA-32 and x86-64)
- For small enterprises, Windows Small Business Server 2008 (codenamed “Cougar”; x86-64)
- For medium-sized enterprises, Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (codenamed “Centro”; x86-64) – this edition was discontinued in 2010.
- The 32-bit variation of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition was previously available through the Microsoft Imagine programme, which was known as DreamSpark at the time, however the version has since been withdrawn. They do, however, continue to give the R2 release.
- Web, Standard, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions all include the Server Core capability. On May 21, 2009, Microsoft released Windows Server 2008 Foundation.
Features of Windows Server 2008 are available:
Because Microsoft Windows Server 2008 is based on the same code as Windows Vista, it has a lot of the same architecture and functionality. Because the codebase is the same, Windows Server 2008 inherits the majority of the technical, security, management, and administrative features introduced in Windows Vista, such as the rewritten networking stack (native IPv6, native wireless, speed, and security improvements); improved image-based installation, deployment, and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging, and reporting tools; new security features such as BitLocker and address space layout randomization (ASLR); and the improved image-based installation, deployment, and recovery. Processors and memory devices are designed as Plug and Play devices so that they can be hot-plugged.
This enables dynamic hardware partitioning of system resources, with each partition having its own memory, processor, and I/O host bridge devices that are independent of other partitions.
Server Core :
Server Core is a version of Microsoft Windows Server 2008 that provides a different installation method. Server Core is a stripped-down installation that doesn’t include the Windows Explorer shell. It also lacks the.NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell, and a slew of other features. All configuration and maintenance is done using command-line interface windows or by remotely connecting to the system via Microsoft Management Console (MMC). There’s a notepad and a few Control Panel applets, such as Regional Settings.
The domain controller (Active Directory Domain Services), Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (formerly known as Active Directory Application Mode), DNS Server, DHCP server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, Internet Information Services 7 web server, and Hyper-V virtual server roles can all be configured with a Server Core installation. Using failover clustering or network load balancing, Server Core can also be utilized to form a high-availability cluster.
A primary motivation for creating a Server Core variant of Windows Server 2008, according to Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Microsoft Windows Server team, was to reduce the operating system’s attack surface, and about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the previous five years would not have affected Server Core.
Failover Clustering is included in the server software, ensuring high availability for mission-critical workloads.
Active Directory :
Active Directory Domain Services was renamed from the Active Directory domain functionality that was kept from Windows Server 2003. (ADDS).
- Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) allows businesses to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a consultant to connect in to a client’s network using their company user name and password.
- Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) is a lightweight directory service provided by Active Directory (formerly Active Directory Application Mode, or ADAM)
- Administrators can use Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS) to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that grant them access to certain services and systems. As part of Active Directory Metadirectory Services, the Identity Integration Feature Pack is included.
- Rights Management Services in Active Directory (ADRMS)
- Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) are designed for usage in branch offices and other circumstances where a domain controller may be located in a low-security location. All write attempts are forwarded to a complete domain controller by the RODC, which holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory. It duplicates all accounts except those that are sensitive. Credentials are not cached by default in RODC mode. Local administrators can also be assigned to log on to the system to execute maintenance operations without having domain-wide administrative privileges.
- Restartable Active Directory allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted without having to reboot the domain controller using the Management Console or the command line. With Server Core, this decreases downtime for offline operations while also lowering overall DC servicing requirements. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in microsoft Windows Server 2008.
- All of Windows Vista’s Group Policy enhancements are included. GPMC (Group Policy Management Console) is a built-in feature. The Group Policy objects are searchable and have the ability to be commented on.
- Network Access Protection, improved branch management, and greater end-user collaboration thanks to policy-based networking. Policies can be defined to assure a higher level of service for specific applications or services that require network bandwidth prioritising between client and server.
- Granular password settings inside a single domain – instead of a single set of password settings for the entire domain, you can implement multiple password policies for administrative accounts on a “group” and “user” basis.
Failover Clustering :
Failover Clustering in Windows Server 2008 provides high availability for services and applications. The majority of server features and roles can be kept operational with minimal downtime.
With the advent of the cluster validation wizard in Microsoft Windows Server 2008, the way clusters are qualified changed dramatically.
The cluster validation wizard is a feature included in Windows Server 2008’s failover clustering. An administrator can utilize the cluster validation wizard to execute a series of focused tests on a group of machines that will be deployed as cluster nodes. This cluster validation procedure performs separate tests on the underlying hardware and software to determine how well failover clustering can be handled on a particular setup.
This capability is only accessible in Microsoft Windows Server Enterprise and Datacenter editions.
Disk management and file storage:
- The ability to resize hard drive partitions, including the system partition, without shutting down the server. This only applies to simple and spanned volumes; striped volumes are not affected.
- Block-level backup based on Shadow Copy that supports optical media, network shares, and the Windows Recovery Environment.
- DFS improvements, including SYSVOL on DFS-R and a Read-only Folder Replication Member. There’s also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that are bigger than the previous limit of 5,000 folders in a namespace.
- Failover Clustering has been improved in several ways (high-availability clusters).
- The Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) allows for centralised iSCSI hard drive registration, deregistration, and querying.
- Self-healing NTFS: Prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected corruption in an NTFS volume’s file system, it marked the volume “dirty,” requiring it to be taken offline to correct errors. With self-healing NTFS, a background NTFS worker thread performs a localized fix-up of damaged data structures, leaving only the corrupted files/folders unavailable without locking out the entire volume or requiring the server to be shut down. S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques were added to help determine when a hard disc may fail.
Hyper-V is hypervisor-based virtualization software that is an important factor of Microsoft’s virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on the kernel layer of an operating system. It’s similar to dividing a single physical server into several smaller compute parts. Hyper-V can operate as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host, allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized. Prior to Microsoft’s release of the final version of Hyper-V as a free download on June 26, 2008, a beta version of Hyper-V was included with some x86-64 editions of Microsoft Windows Server 2008. There is also a standalone Hyper-V model that only supports the x86-64 architecture. While the IA-32 editions of Microsoft Windows Server 2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V.
Windows System Resource Manager:
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 includes Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM). It manages resources and can be used to limit the number of resources a process or a user can utilize in accordance with business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which are determined by the process’s name, type, or owner, impose resource use limits on processes that fit the criteria. CPU time, bandwidth, the number of processors it can run on, and the amount of memory it can use can all be limited. Restrictions can also be set to apply only on specific dates.
For Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Manager is a new role-based management tool. It’s a mashup of Windows Server 2003’s Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard. The Configure My Server dialogue that launches by default on Windows Server 2003 computers has indeed been replaced with Server Manager. Server Manager, on the other contrary, does more than just serve as a starting point for configuring new roles; it also gathers all of the operations users might want to perform on the server, such as establishing up a remote deployment method, adding more server roles, and so on, and provides a consolidated, portal-like view of each role’s status.
Cryptography and protocol:
- Kerberos authentication protocol support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption.
- New cryptography (CNG) API with enhanced certificate management and support for elliptic curve cryptography.
- Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new VPN protocol developed by Microsoft.
- AuthIP is a Microsoft-developed modification to the IKE cryptographic protocol, which is used in IPsec VPNs.
- The new TCP/IP stack’s Server Message Block 2.0 protocol offers a variety of communication improvements, including improved efficiency when connecting to file shares over high-latency lines and improved security through mutual authentication and message signing.
Miscellaneous for Microsoft Windows Server 2008:
- Operating system with complete componentization.
- Improved hot patching, which allows non-kernel changes to be applied without requiring a reboot.
- On x86-64 systems, support for booting from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware.
- On competent hardware, Dynamic Hardware Partitioning allows for the hot addition or replacement of processors and memory.
- Windows Deployment Services (WDS) replaces Automated Deployment Services and Remote Installation Services in microsoft Windows Server 2008 home entertainment. When deploying operating system images, Windows Deployment Services includes an expanded multicast functionality.
- Increased security, Robocopy deployment, better diagnostic tools, and delegated administration are all part of Internet Information Services 7.
- Windows Internal Database, a SQL Server Express 2005 variation that acts as a storage back-end for a number of other components, including Windows System Resource Manager, Windows SharePoint Services, and Windows Server Update Services. Third-party programmers are not permitted to use it.
- The same Windows Aero user interface as Windows Vista is available as an optional “desktop experience” feature for both local and remote users connecting via Remote Desktop.
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