VMware is a leader in virtualization and cloud computing technology, offering network and desktop virtualization solutions. VMware has transformed the IT industry from a physical to a software-based virtual environment. Below VMware Interview Questions and Answers are completing the virtualization related queries.
Technical categories for these VMware interview Questions and Answers:
- Fault Tolerance (FT)
- Virtual Networking
- vCenter Server
- Virtual Storage (Datastore)
- What’s New in vSphere 6.0
- Content Libraries
- Miscellaneous Interview Questions
VMware Hypervisor Interview Questions and Answers
Q1. What is VMKernel and why does it important?
Answer: The VMkernel virtualization interface connects a Virtual Machine to the ESXi host, which is where the VMs are stored. It’s in charge of allocating all of the ESXi host’s resources to VMs, including RAM, CPU, and storage. Special services like vMotion, fault tolerance, NFS, traffic management, and iSCSI are also handled by it. The VMkernel port on the ESXi server can be configured using a regular or distributed vSwitch to access these services. Hosted VMs can’t communicate with the ESXi server without VMkernel.
Q2. What is a hypervisor and what are the different types of hypervisors?
Answer: A virtualization layer called a hypervisor allows several operating systems to share a single hardware host. The host allots physical resources such as memory, CPU, storage, and so on to each operating system or virtual machine. Hypervisors are divided into two categories.
- Hypervisor that is hosted (works as application i-e VMware Workstation)
- Metal on metal (is virtualization software i-e VMvisor, Hyper-V which is installed directly onto the hardware and controls all physical resources).
Q3. What is virtualization and how does it work?
Answer: Virtualization is the act of producing virtual representations of physical components on a physical host, such as servers, storage devices, and network devices. Virtualization enables you to run numerous virtual machines on a single physical machine, referred to as the ESXi host.
Q4. What are the various virtualization types?
Answer: Virtualization can be divided into five categories.
- Server virtualization: It consolidates the physical server, allowing many operating systems to run on the same machine.
- Network Virtualization: This technology allows a physical network to be completely replicated in a software-defined network.
- Storage Virtualization: Provides an abstraction layer for physical storage resources, allowing virtual deployment to be managed and optimized.
- Application virtualization: Improves application mobility and allows VMs to be moved from one host to another with minimal downtime.
- Desktop virtualization: save costs and improve service by virtualizing desktops.
VMware Fault Tolerance (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1: What is VMware Fusion Technology?
Answer: Fault Tolerance (FT) is a key feature of VMware’s vSphere virtualization platform. When an ESXi host fails, it ensures that VMs remain available. It has a maximum of four virtual CPUs and 64 GB of RAM. Because FT requires a lot of bandwidth, a 10GB NIC is suggested. It duplicates an entire virtual machine, including storage, compute, and memory.
Q2. In VMware vSphere 7.0, how many vCPUs can a VM use in FT?
Answer: With the VMware vSphere Enterprise Plus licence, you can have up to 8 vCPUs in VMware vSphere 7.0.
Q3. What is the name of the VMware FT technology?
Answer: VMware FT employs vLockstep technology.
Q4. What is Fault Tolerant Logging?
Answer: When FT is configured between two ESXi hosts, the communication is referred to as FT logging. Configuring the VMKernel port is a prerequisite for configuring FT.
Q5. What if the vCenter Server goes down? Will the FT still work?
Answer: Fault Tolerance on a VM can only be enabled using vCenter Server. For FT to work, vCenter does not need to be online after it is configured. Even if the vCenter is unavailable, FT failover between primary and secondary will occur.
Q6. What is the primary distinction between VMware HA and VMware FT?
Answer: The most significant distinction between VMware HA and VMware FT is that HA is activated per cluster, whereas VMware FT is enabled per VM. In HA, in the event of a host failure, VMs are re-started and powered on another host, however in FT, there is no downtime because the second copy is activated in the event of a host failure.
Virtual Networking (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is virtual networking, and how does it work?
Answer: Virtual networking is a logically connected network of virtual machines (VMs) running on a real server.
Q2. What actually is vSS?
Answer: The Virtual Standard Switch, or vSS, is responsible for the communication of virtual machines (VMs) hosted on a single physical host. It functions similarly to a physical switch, immediately detecting a virtual machine that wishes to communicate with another virtual machine on the same physical server.
Q3. What is virtual disc storage (vDS)?
Answer: Virtual Distributed Switch (vDS) is a single switch that works as a single switch in a virtual environment and is responsible for central provisioning, administration, and monitoring of the virtual network.
Q4: What is the maximum number of standard ports per host?
Answer: In a typical switch or a distributed switch, 4096 ports per host are available.
Q5. What are the main benefits of a virtual distributed switch (vDS)?
Answer: vDS can provide the following facility:
A virtual data center’s central administration
Monitoring and central provision
Q6. What is the VMKernal adaptor and why do you need it?
Answer: vMotion, IP Storage, NAS, Fault Tolerance, and vSAN all use the VMKernel adapter to provide network connectivity to the ESXi host. A separate VMKernal adapter should be created and configured for each type of traffic, such as vMotion, vSAN, and so on.
Q7. How do port groups play a role in datacentre virtualization?
Answer: Port groups, such as vMotion, FT, management traffic, and so on, can be used to separate network traffic.
Q8. How are the three-port groups in ESXi networking configured?
- Virtual Machine Port Group —This is used for Virtual Machine Network
- Service Console Port Group —used to communicate with the Service Console.
- VMKernel Port Group — VMotion, iSCSI, and NFS communications are all handled by this group.
Q9. What is VLAN and why is it used in virtual networking?
Answer: VLAN is a logical configuration on the switch port that divides IP traffic into segments that cannot connect with one other without following specific restrictions. VLAN ID is a unique number assigned to each VLAN.
Q10. What is VLAN Tagging, and how does it work?
Answer: VLAN tagging is the technique of putting a VLAN ID into a packet header to identify which VLAN a packet belongs to.
Q11. On vSwitch, what are the three network security policies/modes?
- Promiscuous mode
- MAC address change
- Forged transmits
Q12. What is vSwitch’s promiscuous mode?
Answer: In vSphere ESX/ESXi, promiscuous mode is a security policy that can be set at the virtual switch or portgroup level. All network traffic passing the virtual switch can be seen by a virtual machine, Service Console, or VMkernel network interface in a portgroup that enables promiscuous mode.
A virtual network adapter in a guest operating system receives only frames that are intended for it by default. When the guest’s network adapter is set to promiscuous mode, it receives all frames that are allowed under the VLAN rules for the corresponding portgroup on the virtual switch. This is handy for monitoring intrusion detection systems or sniffers that need to evaluate all traffic on a network segment.
Q13. What is the network policy for MAC address changes?
Answer: A virtual switch’s security policy contains a MAC address change option. This option has an impact on how much traffic a virtual machine receives.
ESXi accepts requests to modify the effective MAC address to a different address than the original MAC address when the Mac address changes option is set to Accept.
ESXi does not honour requests to change the effective MAC address to a different address than the initial MAC address when the Mac address changes option is set to Reject. This option safeguards the host from MAC impersonation.
Q14: What is the Forged transmits network policy?
Answer: The Forged transmits option has an impact on traffic sent by virtual machines.
ESXi does not compare source and effective MAC addresses when the Forged transmits option is set to Accept.
VMware vCenter Server (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What are the key elements of the vCenter Server architecture?
Answer: vCenter Server is a centralized platform for managing virtual machines and hosts, as well as resource provisioning and performance measurement.
vCenter Server, the vCenter Server components, and the authentication services are all installed on the same machine when you install the vCenter Server Appliance.
The vCenter Server appliance deployments involve the following components:
vCenter Single Sign-On, License Service, Lookup Service, and VMware Certificate Authority are among the authentication services.
vCenter Server, vSphere Client, vSphere Auto Deploy, and vSphere ESXi Dump Collector are all part of the vCenter Server collection of services. The VMware vSphere Lifecycle Manager Extension service and the VMware vCenter Lifecycle Manager are also included in the vCenter Server appliance.
Q2. What is PSC and its components?
Answer: PSC stands for Platform Services Controller, which was initially introduced in VMware vSphere version 6 and is responsible for infrastructure security. It is made up of three main components.
- Single Sign-On (SSO)
- VMware Certificate Authority (CA)
- Licensing service
Q3. What are the two primary PSC deployment methods?
Answer: PSC can be installed in two ways in VMware vSphere 6.7:
However, starting with VMware vSphere 7.0, we can only install PSC in Embedded mode; external PSC deployment is no longer supported in VMware vSphere 7.0 or later.
Q4. What are the various deployment options for vCenter Server?
Answer: Until VMware vSphere 6.7, it has two deployment types.
- Embedded Deployment
- External deployment
External PSC is no longer supported in VMware vSphere 7.0 and later. Only Embedded mode can be used to install PSC.
Q5. What is vRealize Operation (vROP)
Answer: Performance analytics, capacity optimization, and virtual environment monitoring are all possible with vROP’s operating dashboards.
Q6. What is vCloud Suite, and how does it work?
Answer: Virtualization, software-defined datacenter services, disaster recovery, application management, and other VMware components are combined in vCloud Suite to provide a complete set of cloud infrastructure capabilities in a single package.
Q7. What is the first step in securing the vCenter Server and its users?
Answer: vCenter Server must be authenticated using Active Directory. We may assign specific responsibilities to users and administer the virtual environment more efficiently using this method.
Virtual Storage (Datastore) (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is a datastore and how does it work?
Answer: A datastore is a repository for storing and accessing virtual machine files. The Datastore is based on the VMFS and NFS file systems.
Q2. What exactly is a .vmx file?
Answer: It’s a virtual machine’s configuration file.
Q3. What data is stored in the .nvram file?
Answer: It saves information about a virtual machine’s BIOS.
Q4: What is a .vmdk file and how is it used?
Answer: vmdk is a virtual machine disc file that stores virtual machine data. In vSphere 5.5 and later versions, it can be up to 62 TB in size.
Q5. How many different types of discs are there in VMware?
Answer: In vSphere, there are three different disc kinds.
- Thick Provisioned Lazy Zeroes: by default, every virtual disc is produced in this disc format. When a virtual disc is built, physical space is allocated to the VM. It is not possible to convert it to a thin disc.
- Thick Provision Eager Zeroes: This disc type is used in VMware Fault Tolerance. At the time of formation, a VM is given all of the requisite disc space. In comparison to other disc formats, creating a virtual disc takes longer.
- Thin provision: Thin provisioning allots disc space to a virtual machine on demand. As the size of data expands, so does the size of a disc. With thin provisioning, storage capacity utilization can reach 100%.
Q6. What is Storage vMotion, and how does it work?
Answer: Storage vMotion is similar to traditional vMotion in that a VM’s virtual disc is moved from one datastore to another. Virtual disc types that think provisioning disc can be changed to thin-provisioned disc during Storage vMotion.
What’s New in vSphere 6.0 (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is the vSphere 6.0 VM Hardware version?
Answer: 11th iteration
Q2. What vSphere 6.5 hardware version should i use?
Answer: Version 13 is the latest version.
Q3. For vSphere 6.7 and vSphere 7.0, what is the VM Hardware version?
Answer: Version 14 for ESXi 6.7, Version 15 for ESXi 6.7 U2, Version 17 for ESXi 7.0, Version 18 for ESXi 7.0 U1, and Version 19 for ESXi 7.0 U2. Version 14 for ESXi 6.7, Version 15 for ESXi 6.7 U2, Version 17 for ESXi 7.0, Version 18 for ESXi 7.0 U1, and Version 19 for ESXi 7.0 U2.
Q4. When did the vSphere PSC feature initially emerge?
Answer: In vSphere 6.0, the Platform Services Controller (PSC) is introduced. Virtual hardware version 11 is another name for vSphere 6.0.
Q5. In vSphere 6.0, how many hosts can a vCenter Server manage?
Answer: A single vCenter Server in vSphere 6.0 can manage up to 1000 hosts in Windows or vCenter Appliance (vCSA). A single vCenter Server can manage 2000 hosts in vSphere 6.5 and 6.7, and 2500 hosts in vSphere 7.0.
Q6. In vSphere 6.0, how many hosts can a cluster manage?
Answer: In VMware vSphere 6.0 and later versions, a single cluster can manage up to 64 hosts.
Q7. How can a single cluster manage the maximum VMs?
Answer: A single cluster may handle up to 8000 virtual machines.
Q8. What exactly is VVol?
Answer: Virtual Volume is a new VM disc management concept introduced in vSphere 6.0 that allows virtual disc array-based activities. When a virtual disc is created in a virtual environment for a VM, VVol is created automatically.
Q9. How many vSphere 6.0 licensing options are there?
Answer: For vSphere 6.0, there are three license options:
- Standard Edition: Includes one vCenter Server Standard license, as well as up to two vCPUs for Fault Tolerance, vMotion, Storage vMotion, HA, VVols, and other features.
- Enterprise Edition: Includes APIs for Array Integration and Multipathing, DRS, and DPM in addition to the Standard Edition.
- Enterprise Plus: Includes all of the functionality of the Standard and Enterprise Editions, plus Fault Tolerance up to 4 vCPUs and 64GB of RAM. It also comes with Distributed vSwitch and vSphere 6.0’s most expensive licensing option.
Q10. What is the maximum memory size that vSphere 6.0 can support?
Answer: In VMware vSphere 6.0 and 6.5, it supports up to 12TB of RAM per host, whereas in VMware vSphere 6.7 and 7.0, it supports up to 16TB of RAM per host.
Content Libraries (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is the Content Library?
Answer: The Content Library is a central placement point between two vCenter Servers in two separate geographical locations where you may store and distribute VM templates, ISO images, scripts, and other files.
Q2: What are the most key features of content libraries?
Answer: We generate VM templates and share them across several geographical regions without having to recreate them. Sharing and consistency, storage efficiency, and secure subscription are just a few of the advantages.
Q3. How many different kinds of Content Libraries are there?
Answer: It is divided into three categories:
- Local: local control library.
- Published: a local library with subscription-based material (VM templates, ISO images, and so on).
- Subscribed: A library that is subscribed to the published library.
Q4. What are the prerequisites for Content Libraries, as well as their limitations?
Answer: The following are the criteria and limitations of a content library:
- Single storage, which can size up to 64TB
- Maximum of 256 items per library
- Sync occurs once every 24 hours
Q5. What exactly is VMFS?
Answer: In VMware vSphere, VMFS is a virtual machine file system. Virtual machine files are stored in VMFS, which is a datastore. In vSphere 6.0, VMFS can also store huge files up to 64TB in size. VMFS 6 is used to store virtual machines in the most recent versions of VMware vSphere.
VSAN (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is virtual storage area network (vSAN)?
Answer: Virtual SAN is a software-defined storage solution that was initially released in vSphere 5.5 and is fully integrated with the virtualization platform. It builds a distributed shared solution by aggregating locally attached storage of ESXi servers that are part of a cluster.
Q2. What is cold migration, and how does it work?
Answer: Cold migration is the process of moving a powered-off VM from one host to another.
Q3. What is Storage vMotion, and how does it work?
Answer: To relocate a powered-on VM from one datastore to another is called Storage vMotion.
Q4. What are the different configuration possibilities for VSAN?
Answer: For vSAN, there are two setup options:
- Hybrid: Stores data on both flash and magnetic media. Magnetic discs are utilised for capacity or storage, while flash is used for cashing.
- Flash-Only: Flash is used for both caching and storing.
Q5. Do you aware if there are VSAN ready nodes on the market?
Answer: Yes, there are vSAN-ready products on the market, such as VxRail 4.0 and 4.5. VxRail is a cluster that consists of at least three servers and can scale up to 64 servers.
Q6. What is the minimum number of servers/hosts necessary to configure vSAN?
Answer: To set up a vSAN, you’ll need at least three ESXi hosts/servers in the form of a vSAN cluster. A vSAN cluster will fail if one of the servers fails.
Q7. What is the maximum number of ESXi hosts that can be used with vSAN?
Answer: A vSAN cluster can have a maximum of 64 hosts.
Q8. In a single disc group, how many disks groups and how many magnetic disk are allowed?
Answer: On an ESXi host that is part of a vSAN cluster, a maximum of 5 disc groups are allowed, with a maximum of 7 magnetic and 1 SSD per disc group.
Q9. In our virtual environment, how many different types of storage can we use?
- Direct Attached Storage
- Fiber Channel (FC)
- Network Attached Storage (NAS)
Q10. What exactly is NFS?
Answer: NFS (Network File System) is a file-sharing protocol used by ESXi hosts to communicate with NAS devices. A NAS is a network-attached storage device that may offer ESXi hosts with file access capabilities.
Q11. What is iSCSI storage and how does it work?
Answer: An iSCSI SAN is made up of one or more storage processors and an iSCSI storage system. Between the host and the storage array, the TCP/IP protocol is utilized. The ESXi host is setup with an iSCSI initiator. An iSCSI initiator can be hardware-based, dependent or independent, or software-based, in which case it is referred to as an iSCSI software initiator.
Q12. What is the iSCSI addressing format?
Answer: TCP/IP is used to configure it.
Q13. What are the naming conventions for iSCSI?
Answer: There are two ways to format iSCSI names:
- the iSCSI qualified name (IQN)
- extended unique identifier (EUI)
vApp (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is a virtual application (vApp)?
Answer: A virtual application (vApp) is a container or group in which multiple virtual machines (VMs) can package and manage multi-tiered applications for specific needs. For example, a Web server, database server, and application server can all be configured as vApps with their own power-on and power-off sequences.
Q2. What vApp setup options are available?
Answer: Several options for vApp can be configured, including CPU and memory allocation, IP allocation strategy, and so on.
Miscellaneous (VMware Interview Questions and Answers)
Q1. What is VMware Tanzu, and what does it do?
Answer: VMware Tanzu is a set of tools and services that enables clients to create, run, and manage Kubernetes-controlled containerized applications. VMware vSphere 7.0 introduces this technology.
Q2. What is VMware DRS, and how does it work?
Answer: DRS stands for Distributed Resource Scheduler, which uses clusters or resource pools to automatically balance available resources among multiple servers. DRS can relocate VMs from one host to another using HA to balance the available resources among the VMs.
Q3. What are “share,” “limit,” and “reservation” mean?
- Share: A value that indicates the relative relevance or priority of a VM’s access to a resource.
- Limit: The maximum amount of CPU cycles or host physical memory that can be consumed (limit).
- Reservation: This value specifies the amount of CPU or RAM that must be available before a virtual machine (VM) can start.
Q4. What are alarms and why do we use them?
Answer: An alarm is a message that appears when a specific event occurs. For many inventory objects, there are numerous default alerts. The vSphere Web Client can be used to create and modify alarms; 73. What are the devices that can be added while the virtual machine is running?
While the VM is operating, we can add HDDs and NICs.
Q5. What is the definition of a template?
Answer: A template is created when a virtual machine is translated into a format that can be used to generate a virtual machine with pre-defined settings. A template can be created from an installed VM, but it cannot be powered on.
Q6. What is a VM Snapshot?
Answer: A snapshot is a copy of a virtual machine that uses the timestamp as a restore point. When a software upgrade or installation is required, snapshots are taken. After completing a task, a snapshot should be removed for enhanced performance.
Q7. How would i convert a physical machine into a virtual machine?
Answer: Converting a physical machine to a virtual machine requires three steps:
- On the physical machine, an agent must be installed.
- The VI client must be installed along with the Converter Plug-in.
- A server that allows you to import and export virtual machines.
Q8. What is vMotion, and why would you want to use it in a virtual environment?
Answer: It’s a popular feature of VMware vSphere that allows you to move operating virtual machines from one ESXi host to another with minimal downtime. While vMotioning, both datastores and ESXi hosts can be used.
Q9. How would you identify between a clone and a template?
Answer: A clone is a virtual machine that has been copied. If you need to configure numerous VMs with the identical configurations, cloning a VM will save you time. A template, on the other hand, is a master copy of an image made from a VM that may be used to create multiple clones. A VM can’t be powered on or changed after it’s been converted to a template.
Q10. In vSphere HA, what monitoring mechanism is used?
Q11. In vSphere HA, how is the master host elected?
Answer: When HA is enabled in a cluster, all hosts participate in a selection process to choose which one will be the master. A master host will be chosen from among the hosts with the most data stores mounted. All other hosts will continue to be slaves.
Q12. What are the benefits of using VMware Tools?
Answer: It’s a collection of tools that improve a virtual machine’s graphics, mouse/keyboard movement, network card, and other peripheral device performance.
Q13. What is VMware DPM, and how does it work?
Answer: Distributed Power Management (DPM) is a VMware DRS feature that monitors required resources in a cluster. When resources are reduced due to low usage, VMware DPM consolidates workloads and shuts down hosts that aren’t in use, and when resources are increased, it automatically powers on the hosts that aren’t in use.
Q14. What is the ESXi Shell?
Answer: A command-line interface is what it is. It is used to do ESXi host maintenance and diagnostics. Its accessible using DCUI, vCenter Server enable/disable, and SSH.
Q15. How do I run ESXTOP on an ESXi server?
Answer: There are two prerequisites for running ESXTOP on an ESXi host:
Install vSphere Client on a host where you want to configure
Enable SSH from DCUI by using the “Troubleshooting Options” link
Q16. What is VMware vCenter Enhanced Linked Mode and How Does It Work?
Answer: Enhanced Linked Mode (ELM) is a vSphere advanced feature that allows you to connect multiple vCenter Servers to provide a single interface where you can monitor, search, and manage rights, role replications, policies, and licences across many vCenter Servers.
It enables you to deploy multiple vCenter Servers in the same or multiple sites, while implementing vCenter Server as VCSA or Windows Servers, to simplify enterprise virtual environments deployed in the same or multiple sites.
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